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Black limestone shows dark color because of the organic material in the rock. Similar to shale, it does not take much organic carbon a few percent to turn the rock into black color.
Even this is a very fine grain rock, it can be identified as a limestone simply by its softness softer than knife blade . Of course, acid test would further confirm it. The while band on this sample is a fracture in the rock filled by calcite deposit.
Some varieties of limestone perform well in these uses because they are strong, dense rocks with few pore spaces. These properties enable them to stand up well to abrasion and freeze-thaw. Although limestone does not perform as well in these uses as some of the harder silicate rocks, it is much easier to mine and does not exert the same level of wear on mining equipment, crushers, screens, and the beds of the vehicles that transport it.
Some additional but also important uses of limestone include:
Dimension Stone: Limestone is often cut into blocks and slabs of specific dimensions for use in construction and in architecture. It is used for facing stone, floor tiles, stair treads, window sills, and many other purposes.
Roofing Granules: Crushed to a fine particle size, crushed limestone is used as a weather and heat-resistant coating on asphalt-impregnated shingles and roofing. It is also used as a top coat on built-up roofs.
Flux Stone: Crushed limestone is used in smelting and other metal refining processes. In the heat of smelting, limestone combines with impurities and can be removed from the process as a slag.
Portland Cement: Limestone is heated in a kiln with shale, sand, and other materials and ground to a powder that will harden after being mixed with water.
AgLime: Calcium carbonate is one of the most cost-effective acid-neutralizing agents. When crushed to sand-size or smaller particles, limestone becomes an effective material for treating acidic soils. It is widely used on farms throughout the world.
Lime: If calcium carbonate CaC03 is heated to high temperature in a kiln, the products will be a release of carbon dioxide gas CO2 and calcium oxide CaO . The calcium oxide is a powerful acid-neutralization agent. It is widely used as a soil treatment agent faster acting than aglime in agriculture and as an acid-neutralization agent by the chemical industry.
Animal Feed Filler: Chickens need calcium carbonate to produce strong egg shells, so calcium carbonate is often offered to them as a dietary supplement in the form of "chicken grits." It is also added to the feed of some dairy cattle who must replace large amounts of calcium lost when the animal is milked.
Mine Safety Dust: Also known as "rock dust." Pulverized limestone is a white powder that can be sprayed onto exposed coal surfaces in an underground mine. This coating improves illumination and reduces the amount of coal dust that activity stirs up and releases into the air. This improves the air for breathing, and it also reduces the explosion hazard produced by suspended particles of flammable coal dust in the air.
Limestone has many other uses. Powdered limestone is used as a filler in paper, paint, rubber, and plastics. Crushed limestone is used as a filter stone in on-site sewage disposal systems. Powdered limestone is also used as a sorbent a substance that absorbs pollutants at many coal-burning facilities.
Limestone is not found everywhere. It only occurs in areas underlain by sedimentary rocks. Limestone is needed in other areas and is so important that buyers will pay five times the value of the stone in delivery charges so that limestone can be used in their project or process.